Surname identity and solidarity has declined markedly since the 1930s with the decline of Confucianism and later, the rise of Communism in Mainland China. Chinese last names are typically passed down from father to children, although they may not have started that way. Chinese last names are typically passed down from father to children, although they may not have started that way. Ouyang [歐陽/欧阳], Shangguan [上官], Sima [司馬/司马], Zhuge [諸葛/诸葛], Situ [司徒], Xiahou [夏侯], Huangfu [皇甫], and Huyan [呼延]) can still be found quite commonly in modern times with Ouyang, Shangguan, Sima and Situ appearing most frequently. They established schools to educate their sons and held common lands to aid disadvantaged families.
Although there are thousands of Chinese family names, the 100 most common surnames, which together make up less than 5 percent of those in existence, are shared by 85 percent of the population.
A nobleman would hold a shi and a xing surname indicating his ancestor and his sub-lineage.
Of course, clans continued the tradition of tracing their ancestry to the distant past as a matter of prestige. Names are an important type of vocabulary. Nobles would use their surnames to trace their ancestries and compete for seniority in terms of hereditary rank. Origin and Meaning of Chinese Surnames. In ancient times only aristocrats had surnames; two types of surnames, family names (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) denoting ancestral lineage and clan names (氏; pinyin: shì), derived from the subdivision of fiefdoms into sub-lineages, were used. Some are originally from non-Chinese tribes that lived in ancient China, while others were created by joining two one-character family names. Most Hong Kong women retain their own surnames after marriage, but they may choose to be known as Mrs. (husband's surname). A Chinese compound surname is a Chinese surname using more than one character. Many surnames have various ways of romanization, the following listed spellings include Hanyu Pinyin, which is the standard in the PRC and Singapore, and other commonly used spellings. Many of these compound surnames derive from Zhou dynasty Chinese noble and official titles, professions, place names and other areas, to serve a purpose.
Most commonly occurring Chinese family names have only one character; however, about 20 double-character family names have survived into modern times. Zhāng Guóróng—China, transcription using official Hanyu pinyin system, which Romanizes Mandarin pronunciation of Chinese characters and adds suprasegmental tone markers.
The first round of simplification in 1956 simplified 蕭 into 萧, keeping 蕭, /萧 and 肖 distinct. There are also people who use non-standard Romanizations; for example, the Hong Kong media mogul 邵逸夫 Run Run Shaw's surname 邵 is spelled as Shaw, pinyin: Shao. It is thus, technically possible for a married woman to have a six-character full name if both she and her husband have compounded surnames such as in this hypothetical example: 歐陽司徒美英 or Mrs. Au-Yeung Szeto Mei-ying. From Chinese 白 meaning "white, pure", 百 meaning "one hundred, many" or 柏 meaning "cypress tree, cedar" (which is usually only masculine). After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 B.C.E., surnames gradually devolved to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred. Later, during the Han Dynasty, these tables were used by prominent families to glorify themselves and sometimes even to legitimize their political power. Other Chinese characters can form this name as well. The use of different systems of romanization based on different Chinese language variants between 1900~1970 also contributed to the variations. It is thought that early names were passed down from the mother. As a result, it is common for the same surname to be transliterated differently. For example, the surname "Li" is a Mandarin-based pinyin transliteration for the surnames 黎 (Lí); 李, 理 and 里 (Lǐ); 郦, 酈, 栗, 厉, 厲, and 利 (Lì) depending on the tone of pronunciation, which is often disregarded in foreign transliterations. However, different from a western name, the Chinese surname is placed before the person’s given name. According to the story, the founder of the clan was adopted and took the surname Liao, but in honor of his ancestors, he demanded that he be buried with the surname Chen. CHOW f & m Chinese The Chow surname is a Chinese surname for people from the Chou Dynasty, its main lineage. State name: Many commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity. Ethnic groups: Non-Chinese peoples in China sometimes took the name of their ethnic group as surname.
However, very few of the Chinese Thais have Chinese surnames, after the 1913 Surname Act that required the adoption of Thai surnames in order to enjoy Thai citizenship. For example, in Taiwan, there is a clan with the so-called "double Liao" surname.
FamilyEducation is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. In some places, there are additional taboos against marriage between people of the same surname because they are considered to be closely related.
Of the thousands of surnames which have been identified from historical texts prior to the Han Dynasty, most have either been lost or simplified. Chinese surnames today. About two hundred examples, often of two-character surnames, have been identified, but few have survived to the present. Since the peasant population was so large, these are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Chinese surnames are shared by people speaking a number of dialects and languages which often have different pronunciations of their surnames.
Conversely, in some areas, different clans with the same surname are not considered to be related, but even in these cases surname exogamy is generally practiced. Romanization and transliteration of Chinese surnames into other languages has given rise to confusion over identity. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.
This is explained by the fact that Hong Kong uses traditional Chinese characters, not simplified Chinese characters. (listed alphabetically by their Mandarin pinyin spellings), The Ten-Thousand Families of Surnames from Netor (NETOR纪念:万家姓氏) (in simplified Chinese only), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinese_compound_surname&oldid=985597350, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Dukes' descendants", an address of the noble descendants in the, Intermarriage between Lu and Fei (Bi) clans, "Grand Historian", an imperial official title, "famous person", descendants of Shaozheng Mao (少正卯), "West Gate", place of residence, from Marquessate of Zheng in the, The (personal) name of the Yellow Emperor, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 20:53.
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