accelerated heart rate Under aerobic condition the carbohydrates are broken down in to CO2 and H2O and a large amount of energy. • Aerobic glycolysis occurs only in eukaryotes while anaerobic glycolysis occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. If oxygen is available, then the free energy contained in NADH is further released via reoxidization of the mitochondrial electron chain and results in the release of 30 more mol of ATP per mol of glucose.However, when oxygen is in short supply, this NADH is reoxidized instead by reducing pyruvate to lactate. This is clinically significant because oxidation of glucose under aerobic conditions results in 32 mol of ATP per mol of glucose. The first occurs in the cytosol and involves the conversion of glucose to pyruvate with resultant production of NADH. It can occur aerobically or anaerobically depending on whether oxygen is available. Anaerobic glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm when a cell lacks oxygenated environment or lacks mitochondria. Virtually all tissues have a requirement for glucose to function normally. • Anaerobic glycolysis produces 2ATPs per glucose molecule while aerobic glycolysis produces 36 to 38 ATPs per glucose molecule. Therefore, it can be seen in the organisms like prokaryotes, cells like erythrocytes, and in hypoxic environments such as rapidly contracting muscle tissue or ischaemic tissue that lack mitochondria.

[1] Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise,[1] providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes. Glycolysis does not require oxygen and can occur under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. When compared to anaerobic glycolysis, this pathway is much more efficient and produces more ATP per glucose molecule. 29th ed. ONLY pyruvate can enter the Kreb’s (tricarboxylic acid cycle or TCA) so lactate must be converted back into pyruvate which requires oxygen. Under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, several reduction reactions can be catalyzed by the intact P450 monooxygenase system or only by its flavoprotein component, NADPH-P450 reductase. Aerobic glycolysis produces pyruvate at the end of glycolysis while anaerobic glycolysis produces lactate. • Pyruvate is reduced to lactate during anaerobic glycolysis whereas, during aerobic glycolysis, pyruvate is oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl- CoA). However, under anaerobic conditions, only 2 mol of ATP can be produced. However, in both processes, the starting source is glucose and end product is pyruvate. In mammals, lactate can be transformed by the liver back into glucose using the Cori cycle. Anaerobic glycolysis produces (2 lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H2O + 2 H+) from one glucose molecule. 13 Sept. Since the pH range in which cells can function is quite narrow (pH 7.0–7.6), uncontrolled glycolysis can lead to cell death. The acid produced by glycolysis lowers the pH both inside cells where lactate is produced as well as outside where protons can diffuse. • Unlike in anaerobic glycolysis, NADH + H+ undergo oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of oxygen in aerobic glycolysis. Anaerobic glycolysis is thought to have been the primary means of energy production in earlier organisms before oxygen was at high concentration in the atmosphere and thus would represent a more ancient form of energy production in cells. Accessed May 14, 2013. In this case, NADH is oxidized to NAD+ in the cytosol by converting pyruvate into lactate. Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Web.

Glycolysis is the first step of ATP formation that takes place in the cytosol outside of the mitochondria, using glucose as the energy source. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry.



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