The remains seem too young for a woman who would have, if only for a short time, led a rebellion against her older sister and was captive in the Temple of Artemis for several years after her defeat. These included the epistolographos ('letter-writer', responsible for diplomacy), the hypomnematographos ('memo-writer' or the chief secretary), the epi ton prostagmaton ('in charge of commands', who produced the drafts of royal edicts), the key generals, and the dioiketes ('household manager', who was in charge of taxation and provincial administration). However, the expected Seleucid invasion never took place. The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible is likely to have taken place among the Jews of Alexandria, but was probably a protracted process rather than a single moment of translation.

Arsinoë IV (Greek: Ἀρσινόη; between 68 and 63 BC – 41 BC) was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes. The Alexandrians, however, resolved to oppose him and dispatched a delegation to Rome to refute Ptolemy’s accusations against them and to present charges of his misrule. [58] Ptolemy also instituted cults for a number of relatives. The tax farmers received any excess from the collected taxes as profit. The acquisitions of the Ptolemaic kingdom at this time can be traced in epigraphic sources and seem to include Samos, Miletus, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia, and perhaps Cilicia. Most people are likely unfamiliar with this Egyptian royal, but nearly everyone with a television knows the name of her sister: Cleopatra, the last pharaoh of Egypt. There he rewarded his soldiers by distributing large plots of land that had been reclaimed from Lake Moeris in the Fayyum to them as estates (kleroi).

Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Ethiopia has several important port cities. Arsinoë's year of birth is generally regarded as being between 68 and 63 BC: The Encyclopedia Britannica cites 63 BC, making her 15 at the time of her uprising and defeat against Julius Caesar and 22 at her death, while the researcher Alissa Lyon cites 68 BC making her 27 at her death. Twenty-four chariots drawn by elephants were followed by a procession of lions, leopards, panthers, camels, antelopes, wild asses, ostriches, a bear, a giraffe and a rhinoceros. [10] Caesar countered this measure by digging wells into the porous limestone beneath the city that contained fresh water. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! Steady on.

This was followed by a Second Syrian War (260-253 BC) against the Seleucid empire, in which many of the gains from the first war were lost. The Seleucid forces were afflicted by economic problems and an outbreak of plague. Recognizing his imminent defeat, Caesar removed his armor and purple cloak so that he could swim to the safety of a nearby Roman ship. The popular belief is that she was bitten by an asp. [30] The region's gold production was a key contributor to the prosperity and power of the Ptolemaic empire in the third century BC. During the Alexandrian war, Arsinoe attempted to lead the native forces against Cleopatra, who had allied herself with Julius Caesar. It is possible that much of the structure had already been developed in the reign of Ptolemy I, but evidence for it - chiefly in the form of documentary papyri - only exists from the reign of Ptolemy II. The Egyptians trapped Caesar in a section of the city by building walls to close off the streets. One ancient account claims that Ptolemy II murdered his father, but other sources say that he died of old age, which is more likely given that he was in his mid-eighties.

He had it cleared and restored to operation in 270/269 BC - an act which is commemorated in the Pithom Stele. This account contains several anachronisms and is unlikely to be true. One reason for this may have been the desire to outflank Magas of Cyrene, who shared a border with the Carthaginian empire at the Altars of Philaeni. On 28 March 284 BC, Ptolemy I had Ptolemy II declared king, formally elevating him to the status of co-regent. Archelaus, reputedly a Pontic prince, appeared in 56 and was married to her. [36] Forensic and archaeological analysis of the origins of the skeleton and tomb are ongoing. Arsinoe and Cleopatra kept a wary eye on one another; the latter considered her sister a threat to her power, of which Arsinoe was very much aware. Perhaps the strongest evidence that she was in fact exercising her own authority is that Caesar, after the Pharos debacle, was prepared to release Ptolemy XIII — a male, who continued the war against Caesar — just to get his hands on her. Joyce Tyldesleyplaces her birth date as between 68 and 65 BC. Omissions? Around 272 BC, Ptolemy II promoted himself and his sister-wife Arsinoe II to divine status as the Theoi Adelphoi (Sibling Gods). Berenice IV, (died 55 bc), eldest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes of Egypt, sister of the great Cleopatra VII, and ruler of Egypt during her father’s absence in 58–55. However, now that I am older, I am highly skeptical that these remains are those of Arsinoe; I am critical of Thur’s methods and analysis; and I doubt there will ever be a conclusive answer as to whose remains they are. 33 min ago, C++ |

[49], The course of this war is very unclear, with the chronological and causal relationship of events attested at different times and in different theatres being open to debate.

Ptolemy, driven from Egypt by the threat of popular insurrection in 58, went to Rome. [76], Ptolemy II cultivated good relations with Carthage, in contrast to his father, who seems to have gone to war with them at least once. [16] Another poet Theocritus defended the marriage by comparing it to the marriage of the gods Zeus and his older sister Hera. Some scholars, such as Hans Hauben, argue that Kos belongs to the Chremonidean War and was fought around 262/1 BC, with Patroclus in command of the Ptolemaic fleet. [42], Despite the presence of Patroclus and his fleet, it appears that Ptolemy II hesitated to fully commit himself to the conflict in mainland Greece.

Antony and Cleopatra led a joint naval force at the 31 BC Battle of Actium against Octavian's general Agrippa, who won the battle after Cleopatra and Antony fled to the Peloponnese and eventually Egypt.

[19] An alternate hypothesis was in the docudrama "Cleopatra: Portrait of a Killer", in which it was alleged a headless skeleton of a female child between the ages of 15 and 18 may be Arsinoë. Cleopatra was born in Egypt. Cleopatra ended this pseudo truce: In 41 BC, Arsinoe was murdered on the steps of the temple on the orders of … [37], The Athenian politician Chremonides forged a further alliance with Sparta in 269 BC. Poets like Callimachus, Theocritus, Apollonius of Rhodes, Posidippus were provided with stipends and produced masterpieces of Hellenistic poetry, including panegyrics in honour of the Ptolemaic family. [2][3] Ptolemy was educated by a number of the most distinguished intellectuals of the age, including Philitas of Cos and Strato of Lampsacus. The highlight was a Grand Procession, composed on a number of individual processions in honour of each of the gods, beginning with the Morning Star, followed by the Theoi Soteres, and culminating with the Evening Star.

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