104-6. 157-173. [37] Monique Dixsaut (2001, pp. 81-95. And since the very knowledge of love is empirical, the very efficacy of Diotima’s theoretical account can only consist in fostering this empirical knowledge already present in the soul of the interlocutor. This lesson can be divided into three points: thanks to the characters of Diotima and the young Socrates, (1) Plato and Socrates show that they must adapt their lesson to their addressees, (2) they show what value a lesson expounded in the form of a didactic monologue may have and (3) what value a teaching delivered in the form of a reported dialogue may have. [44] See Bury 1932, p. LVII, Rowe 1998, p. 9, Sheffield 2006, p. 23. At this point, if all goes well, the lover will be well prepared to "catch sight of something ... which in fact gives meaning to all his previous efforts." From there, the lover's focus must shift from physical to mental beauty—the beauty inherent in creative thinking and sound reasoning. 328e-329a, 334e-335c; Gorg. See Athenaeus, Deipn, 217a, Robin 1929, p. XLV, Sier 2012, p. 55, n. 4, Nails 2002, pp. Thanks to Diotima, Socrates and Plato deliver a lesson in communication besides a lecture on eros.

250-1. [34] He seems to share with the poet his ignorance about eros, since he considers Diotima as the “master of truth”[35] she claims to be, and he describes himself as the ignorant and passive recipient of her knowledge.[36]. In the days following the party, Phaedrus and Alcibiades were accused of having profaned the Eleusinian mysteries. As Debra Nails argues against Martha Nussbaum (1986), Plato does not conflate philosophy and mystery religion (see Nails 2006, pp. — 1998, Plato: Symposium, Aris & Phillips, Warminster.

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Platons Theorie der Liebe?’, in C Horn 2012a, pp. Only Diotima explicates that a person seeks glory and honor in their quest for immortality. Course Hero. Nightingale, AW 1993, ‘The Folly of Praise: Plato’s Critique of Encomiastic Discourse in the Lysis and the Symposium’, Classical Quarterly 43, pp. Socrates's discourse on love is the centerpiece of the dialogue and, in part, a refutation of Agathon's one-sided speech on the topic. 125-140. This is important since he is the only one of the first five speeches to branch out beyond individual human actions and relationships in discussing love, making it something different altogether. On the retrospective irony created by the elaborate process of transmission, see Halperin 1992, p. 100.

She also denies the idea that the end of this desire is only finding the person, since that is only the beginning of the purpose in the pursuit for love. The Question and Answer section for Symposium by Plato is a great [6] As a priestess and a woman, Diotima may also (4) symbolize what philosophy owes to the religious paradigm of inspiration[7] or (5) to the feminine paradigm of pregnancy. See Blondell 2002, pp. Detienne, M 1967, Les Maîtres de vérité dans la Grèce archaïque, Maspero, Paris. 72-91. [35] I borrow this phrase from Marcel Detienne (1996). 141-157. "Symposium Study Guide."

[55] That is, the contemplation of the idea of beauty. 252-71. We cannot do it in what is ugly, but we can in what is beautiful. [18] See 177a-d. “laudatory ode” translates ὕμνους καὶ παίωνας (176a), ἐγκώμιον (177b) and ἔπαινον (177b and d). [3] See McPherran 2006, p. 91, n. 43. [25] See Meno 79e-82b, 85b-86c; Theaet. This shifts from the previous speeches, setting up Diotima’s arguments. Like the dialogue reported by Socrates, the dialogue written by Plato intends to transmit both the theoretical knowledge of eros and the eros of knowledge,[59] by engaging his addressee in a complex process of mimetic pedagogy, a “play of character” already studied by Ruby Blondell.[60]. [52] In this respect, the sophistic nature of Diotima’s speech is relative to the nature and the attitude of her public. In what follows, he claims to be repeating the views of the priestess Diotima, his mentor in matters of love. This opposition between makrologia and brakhulogia is equivalent to the distinction made at the end of the fifth century between “rhetorical” and “dialectical” argument.


Just as Socrates makes known those to whom Diotima’s theory is addressed, Plato, before making the dialectician speak, always makes his audience speak. [16] 212a; compare with Prot. 148e-151a.

"Symposium by Plato Quotes and Analysis". Study Questions; Bibliography; Writing Help. 184-5 and 193). I would like to examine what appears to be an exemplary case of the intimate connection between philosophical content and literary form in Plato’s dialogues: the way Socrates, in the Symposium, after having discussed for a while with his table companion Agathon, chooses to praise Eros (201d-212c). Anton, JP 1974, ‘The Secret of Plato’s Symposium’, Southern Journal of Philosophy 12, pp. 43-5, Luce 1952, pp.

Placing it in the final moments of the text increases its importance, leading some to believe it was a major message Plato was trying to convey. [7] Ficino 2002, pp. 206c-e), “For in fact”, she said, “there are those who are pregnant in their souls still more than in their bodies, with things that it is fitting for the soul to conceive and to bring to birth. — 1990, ‘Why is Diotima a Woman’, in D Halperin, One hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love, Routledge, New York & London, pp.

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20 Sep. 2017. Course Hero. [60] See Blondell 2002, pp. Like Agathon in front of the older Socrates, he plays in front of Diotima the role of the student, and when Socrates starts reporting the dialogue, he claims that he had formerly given Diotima the same answers as Agathon (201d-e). [21] The dialectician may indulge in long speeches (μακρολογία), admittedly, as is the case in the Phaedrus, but he always uses this mode of expression as a second best way designed to meet the expectations of his interlocutors. [39] On both aspects, see Ayache 2002, p. 153.

[34] Socrates claims to have met Diotima about ten years before the plague that struck Athens in 430 B.-C. At that time (440) Socrates was about thirty years old, that is to say the age of Agathon at the date of the drinking party (416). I shall argue that with Diotima Plato acts just like his legendary father Apollo[12] who, according to the famous Heraclitean fragment, οὔτε λέγει οὔτε κρύπτει ἀλλὰ σημαίνει. 63-4; Corrigan and Glazov-Corrigan 2004, pp. — 1992, ‘Plato and the Erotics of Narrativity’, in JC Klagge & ND Smith 1992, pp. [64]. As such, each deserves a separate discussion: see "Main Ideas" for an exploration of the two concepts and their relation to the Symposium overall. 137-41 and Frede, D. 2012, pp. [31] In fact, it is the didactic form, not the content, of Diotima’s speech that is sophistic.

Strauss, L 2001, On Plato’s Symposium, Chicago & London, University of Chicago Press. In deciphering Diotima’s speech with regards to its relationship to the entirety of the . Socrates was trying to prove to them that authors should be able to write both comedy and tragedy: the skillful tragic dramatist should also be a comic poet. 236d-237a and 241e-242b: Socrates describes himself as the hostage of Phaedrus, the young lover of rhetoric. [50] This kalos logos helped Socrates to recognize the value of the desire for knowledge he carried within his soul, and to devote this desire to the search for the essences. (οὐκ εὐφημήσεις;) Or do you suppose that whatever is not beautiful is necessarily ugly?…” (201e). In his restless, ambitious, seeking quality, Diotima adds, Love has more in common with the unsatisfied lover than with the beautiful beloved. Unlike the former orators, the dialectician doesn’t deliver a speech in his own name but reports the theory of a priestess, Diotima of Mantinea, who allegedly initiated him into the mysteries of Eros. Until now, most studies focused on the first question (why Diotima?)

271c-d, trans. [47] Τούτων δὴ ἔγωγε αὐτός τε ἐραστής, ὦ Φαῖδρε, τῶν διαιρέσεων καὶ συναγωγῶν, ἵνα οἷός τε ὦ λέγειν τε καὶ φρονεῖν. To begin with Diotima, the very content of her theory seems to be a compromise between the point of view of the dialectician Socrates and that of his main addressee, Agathon, particularly insofar as she seems to consider that the soul is as perishable as the body. On this question, see Hackforth 1950, pp.

104. [10] Stallbaum 1857, p. 147; Nails 2006, pp. Therefore, we can consider that Socrates intends to affect Agathon in the way he was himself affected by Diotima’s didactic monologue, and to communicate the eros of knowledge rather than the knowledge of eros. If Socrates deliberately intended to craft an ambivalent character, thanks to whom his mute audience could speak as loudly as himself, it is no accident that Diotima sparks such controversy among scholars. In Symposium, his speech is an exercise in myth-making, explaining that sexual attraction came about when Zeus cut humans… read analysis of Aristophanes. Introductory Dialogue and The Speech of Phaedrus Summary and Analysis. Halperin surveys several possible answers, including the traditional one: Plato did not want to show Socrates learning about love from "an older and wiser male." He did not become a theoretician of love but, above all, a practitioner of the love of knowledge, “a lover (ἐραστής) of the processes of division and bringing together” (Phaedrus, 266b),[47] a man passionately involved in the infinite quest for truth who calls into question others’ certainties in order to communicate to them the eros of knowledge, rather than the theoretical knowledge of eros. [9] Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 1919, p. 298; Neumann 1965, pp. The dialectician who wants to communicate the truth must use language, that is to say a set of images (Cratylus 430a-432d), and a good image, a true image, must fit the point of view of the beholder in order to let him catch a glimpse of the truth.[43]. That is why Socrates may be considered as a mouthpiece for the author but cannot be confused with him: Socrates is not merely Plato, but a figure of Plato expressing himself within a given enunciative context, and explicitly adapting his discourse to a definite audience. Nails, D 2002, The People of Plato. But since the reader can compare the opposite attitudes of these two images of himself, he is prompted to distance himself from his obvious double, and to identify rather with Socrates. However, as such, Diotima is part of a larger tool of communication, that is, the whole dialogue between her and the younger Socrates, reported by Socrates himself. We can infer from all these elements that the real virtue of Diotima’s lecture was to be a kalos rather than a true logos. This "coincidence" is one clue suggesting that Diotima is probably a rhetorical device, rather than a real historical personage like Socrates or Aristophanes. Diotima is a fictitious prophetess whom Socrates invents in his speech at the symposium.

C. Rowe, modified[26]). Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U von 1919, Platon I, Weidmann, Berlin. The series of speeches in praise of Love are not simply meant as beating around the bush that leads up to the main event. Hermann, KF 1839, Geschichte und System der platonischen Philosophie, Winter, Heidelberg. 64, n. 2, pp. [29] See Symp. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! Neumann, H 1965, ‘Diotima’s Concept of Love’, The American Journal of Philology, vol. They mirror Diotima's discussion of the mysteries, where she suggests that one can approach the truth only through a slow and careful ascent.

91-2 and Sayre 1992, p. 231. Thus, similarly to Diotima, the young Socrates appears as a mixed character, midway between the grown-up philosopher (Socrates) and his naive addressee (Agathon). Overall Analysis and Themes; 172a - 177e; 178a - 180b; 180c - 185c; 185c - 189b; 189c - 193e; 193e - 197e; 198a - 201c; 201d - 204c; 204d - 209e; 210a - 212c; 212c - 216c; 216c - 223d; Characters; Further Study .

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